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Glossário de termos


Visite oSite Aikido FAQ dicionáriopara obter mais informações.

A ortografia ou significados de qualquer uma das palavras listadas podem ser incorreta. Se alguém sabe alguma coisa que precisa corrigir no Glossário eu would agradecer qualquer ajudar com ele.Correio eletrónico a mim

Observações sobre a pronúncia:

Japonês tem cinco curtas vogais; [a>'arte','tinta','madeira',"ovo",' cão e cinco vogais longas; a e i o u, que deve ser pronunciado como uma som contínuo, igual à duas vogais curtas idênticas tais como shomen, documento e shomen, frente, com um longo "o" som. Consoantes duplas: kk, pp, ss e tt indicam um ligeiro Pausar antes deles como no ikkyo, bokken e happpo (oito direções). Em Japonês, os caracteres chineses, kanji, podem ser leitura de duas maneiras.

EsquerdaDireitoMãoEspadaCorpoTécnica
Maneira de chinêsSAYuShuParaShinGI
Forma de JaponêsHidariMigiteKatanaMIwaza

Único chinês caracteres são frequentemente lidos da forma japonesa; combinações podem ser ler de qualquer maneira. Por exemplo, "mão esquerda" e "mão direita" são lidas da maneira japonesa como hidari-te e como migi-te, mas o exercício de "esquerda-direita" pode ser lido comosayuna Maneira chinesa. Mudanças sonoras ocorrem quando duas leituras japonesas são agravado: k torna-se g, s torna-se z, t torna-se d, h se torna b ou p.

Por exemplo, te, mão + katana, espada = te-gatana ou tegatana. O japonês é repleto de homônimos tendo o mesmo som mas diferentes conceitos gravados com caracteres chineses diferentes.

Portanto, Shin Shin Toitsu Aikido é "Aikido com coordenação mente-corpo" como shin pode significar mente e também o corpo. O seguinte é que uma lista de japonês termos que você vai ouvir frequentemente usados no seu treinamento. É essencial que você estudar e aprender estes termos, não só por razões práticas, mas também para ajudá-lo a descobrir os muitos aspectos do Aikido formação.



A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z  



A

Abara
The ribs.

Agatsu
"self victory." according to the founder, true victory (masakatsu) is the victory one achieves over oneself (agatsu). thus one of the founder's "slogans" was "masakatsu agatsu" "the true victory of self-mastery."

Ago
Jaw.

Agura
Sitting cross-legged.

Ai
Harmony, integration, unification, a coming together. in the context of aikido, it is used to signify the spirit of harmony and accord, hence aikido is "the way of harmony." also love, affection. o-sensei said, "aiki (harmony spirit) is aiki (love spirit)."

Ai nuke
"mutual escape." an outcome of a duel where each participant escapes harm. this corresponds to the ideal of aikido according to which a conflict is resolved without injury to any party involved.

Ai uchi
"mutual kill." an outcome of a duel where each participant kills the other. in classical japanese swordsmanship, practitioners were often encouraged to enter a duel with the goal of achieving at least an ai uchi. the resolution to win the duel even at the cost of one's own life was thought to aid in cultivating an attitude of single-minded focus on the task of cutting down one's opponent. this single-minded focus is exemplified in aikido in the technique, ikkyo, where one enters into an attacker's range in order to effect the technique.

Aiki otoshi
Entering deeply and picking up uke's off-side leg.

Aiki-taiso
Third set of basic exercises at the start of a class (ki society). these are training exercises for the aikido arts and techniques.

Aikido
The way of harmony, ai, harmony ki, spirit. do, way. a modern discipline of harmony between opposites on a universal scale.

Aikidoka
A person who follows the path of aikido.

Arigato
Thankyou (informal)

Ashi
Leg or foot.

Ashi kubi
Ankle.

Ashi sabaki
Footwork. proper footwork is essential in aikido for developing strong balance and for facilitating ease of movement.

Ashisukui
Leg sweep vacuum.

Asoko
Over there.

Atemi
(lit. striking the body) a strike to a vital point or hit to the body. in aikido, the strike is ideally a feint, not intended to injure but to distract, startle, and lead uke's mind. strike directed at the opponent for purposes of unbalancing or distraction. atemi is often vital for bypassing or "short-circuiting" an opponent's natural responses to aikido techniques. the first thing most people will do when they feel their body being manipulated in an unfamiliar way is to retract their limbs and drop their centre of mass down and away from the person performing the technique. by judicious application of atemi, it is possible to create a "window of opportunity" in the attacker's natural defences, facilitating the application of an aikido technique.

Atemi waza
Techniques to strike vital points.

Ato
Move back.

Ayumi ashi
Alternated step.

B

Barai
Sweep.

Bo
Stave, staff or jo see jo.

Bokken
Wooden sword, from boku, wood + ken, sword. originally bokken was a practice sword used to avoid damage by or to the razor-sharp and costly katana. eventually it came to be considered as a weapon in its own right. different schools use different styles for practice; some (such as the suburito) are extremely heavy; movement with tension or weight upper-side is readily revealed by exhaustion and painfully sore muscles. see shinken (real sword).

Buddhism
The doctrine of enlightenment propounded by the indian philosopher gautama siddharta (563 - 483 b.c.)

Budo
Martial arts, from bu, power, bravery, military affairs + do, way. a warrior, leader, scholar, noble people. see "samurai". "martial way." the japanese character for "bu" (martial) is derived from characters meaning to "stop" and (a weapon like a) "halberd." in conjunction, then, "bu" may have the connotation "to stop the halberd." in aikido, there is an assumption that the best way to prevent violent conflict is to emphasize the cultivation of individual character. the way (do) of aiki is thus equivalent to the way of bu, taken in this sense of preventing or avoiding violence so far as possible.

Budoka
Martial way practitioner.

Bujitsu
The arts of the warrior or the art of war.

Bushi
Warrior.

Bushido
The code of honour of the bushi or the warriors code. the ways which fighting nobles, knights, samurai should observein their life as well as in their vocation; "the precepts of knighthood." code of moral principles which the samurai were required or instructed to observe.

C

Chokkan
Intuition.

Chokkanteki
Intuitive.

Chokusen
A straight line.

Chototsu
Atemi point between the eyes.

Choyaku
The exercise where one leaps, jumps, slides or glides as one executes a movement.

Chudan
Middle hand/sword position.

Chushin
Centre of line / circle.

Confucianism
The moral doctrine of right conduct, extremely social in content, extremely social in content, propounded by the chinese scholar and philosopher confucius (551-479 b.c.)

D

Daitai
The thigh.

Daito-ryu
A traditional system of aikijutsu. one of the foundation arts in o-sensei's early training. dan a level, a step. a rank above kyu. shodan is first level; nidan the second, sandan the third, yondan the fourth etc.

Denko
Atemi point at the floating rib.

Do
Way, path, discipline, study with physical and spiritual implications. in the literal sense, a road or path; by extension, a course of study or a way of life but certainly not limited to martial arts. the japanese character for "do" is the same as the chinese character for tao (as in "taoism"). in aikido, the connotation is that of a way of attaining enlightenment or a way of improving one's character through aiki. aikido is the way of harmony. kendo is the way of the sword. kyudo is the way of the bow (archery). kado is the way of flower . chado or sado the way of the tea .

Do (2)
Rib area, from waist to shoulders. this term appears in kendo and other sword arts as a target area for cuts.

Dojo
Place of practice, training hall, from do way, do place. a dojo is a place which offers training in 'the way', do. dogi or dojogi refers to the uniform or dress worn while practicing a given discipline. dojo, "the place of enlightenment," is a word derived from the sanskrit bodhimanda, the place where the ego self undergoes transformation into the egoless self. the place where we practice aikido. traditional etiquette prescribes bowing in the direction of the shrine (kamiza) or the designated front of the dojo (shomen) whenever entering or leaving the dojo.

Dojo-cho
"leader" of a dojo.

Domo
Thanks (informal)

Domo arigato
Thankyou (formal)

Domo arigato gozimasu
Thankyou very much - very formal (for something that is happening)

Dori
Variant of tori, from toru, to grab or to hold. see tori.

Dosa
Action, movement, from do, movement + sa, creation. although sometimes mistaken for a wrestling contest, kokyu dosa is actually an exercise in breath movement and ki extension.

Doshu
Grandmaster / head of the way. following the traditional japanese custom, the position of doshu has been made hereditary.

Douchi
Cut to the trunk.

E

En
Circle.

En no irimi
Circular entry. the irimi technique in which one enters one's partner circularly.

En-undo
En-undo describes a circular motion. kokyu-nage en-undo and kote o'roshi en-undo are named for their pronounced circular motion.

Engi
(inter)dependent origination (sanskrit = pratitya samutpada). in buddhist philosophy, phenomena have no unchanging essences. rather, they originate and exist only in virtue of material and causal conditions. without these material and causal conditions, there would be no phenomena. furthermore, since the material and causal conditions upon which all phenomena depend are continually in flux, phenomena themselves are one and all impermanent. since whatever is impermanent and dependent for existence on conditions has no absolute status (or is not absolutely real), it follows that phenomena (what are ordinarily called "things") are have no absolute or independent existential status, i.e., they are empty. to cultivate a cognitive state in which the empty status of things is manifest is to realize or attain enlightenment. the realization of enlightenment, in turn, confers a degree of cognitive freedom and spontaneity which, among other (and arguably more important) benefits, facilitates the performance of martial techniques in response to rapidly changing circumstances. (see ku)

F

Fudo-shin
The immovable-mind, from fu, not, and do, moving + shin, mind, not in the sense of stubbornness or rigidity, but in the sense of calm, stability, and imperturbability. it is the calm and stability of a spinning top. while the mind cannot be tested directly, it can be tested through the body, as we do with various ki tests. hence fudo-tai (immovable body) is considered to indicate the condition of fudo-shin.

Fudo-tai
Immovable body.

Fune-kogi
A boat rowing motion or exercise, from fune, boat + kogi, rowing, but very different from western-style rowing. japanese boats were equipped with one oar which was sculled back and forth and also served as the rudder.

Furikaette
Reversing direction.

Futari waza
Exercises with two people.

Futarigake
Two person attack.

G

Gaeshi
Variant of kaeshi, from kaesu, to turn out. see kaeshi.

Gake
Attack.

Gaku
Calligraphy or motto hung on dojo walls.

Ganseki otoshi
Arm bar with elbow brace over the shoulder.

Gedan
Lower level hand position, from ge, low + den, level. on the body, the area below the waist. sword (or hands) held at a lower level.

Gi
Clothes, but note that in japanese this element does not stand alone; the use of gi to indicate practice uniform is an english usage. it is often used specifically like judo-gi, karate-gi or kendo-gi. the uniform worn in class is keikogi, "practice clothes" or dogi the clothing worn while you are practicing the "way."

Gi (2)
A technique. gi , equivalent to waza . ken-gi are sword techniques, jo-gi are stick techniques, tai-gi are body, or "no-weapon techniques.

Giri
Duty what you have to do.

Go
Back, rear. see ushiro . contrast with zen.

Go-kyo
No 5 wrist technique, "fifth teaching,' a painful pinning or immobilization technique,.

Gokoku
Pressure point in fleshy area between thumb and forefinger.

Gomen nasai
Excuse me, i'm sorry.

Goningake
Five person attack.

Goshi
The lateral pelvis: hips ( also see koshi)

Gyaku
Reverse, opposite, inverted.

Gyaku-tsuki
Punching with the rear of the hand gyaka-hanmi.

Gyaku-uchi
Any reverse strike.

H

Hachi-no-ji
Figure eight, from hachi, eight + no, of, possessive particle + ji, figure or letter.

Hagai-jime
Pinion, from hagai, a part where feathers cross + jima, from shime, strangling. where uke grabs nage's elbows (usually from behind).

Hai
Yes. pronounced in one sharp breath, not hdi-eee, as in the english short form, of hello.

Hajime
Begin / start.

Hajimemashite
Nice to meet you.

Hakama
The voluminous pleated pants or divided skirt worn over the gi. in ki society, it is worn by students ranking 2nd kyu and above.

Han
Half, pertaining to physical position. zagi han-dachi from za, seated + techniques + gi, techniques + han, half + dachi from tachi, standing, describes techniques in which a standing uke attacks a nage seated in seize. nage may rise to one knee, a half-standing position.

Hanashi waza
Techniques from escaping from holds, also known as hazushi waza.

Hanmi
Han, half + mi, body is the basic aikido stance in which the feet are placed to form two sides of a triangle, exposing only half the body to the attacker. commonly referred to as "hamni.". a triangular stance, most often aikido techniques are practiced with uke and nage in pre-determined stances. this is to facilitate learning the techniques and certain principles of positioning with respect to an attack. at higher levels, specific hanmi cease to be of much importance.

Hantai
Opposite, from han, reverse + tai confront. in techniques involving a hantai tenkan, nage reverses direction and turns. the other way round.

Happo giri
8 direction cutting with the sword. the connotation here is really movement in all directions. in aikido, one must be prepared to turn in any direction in an instant.

Happo waza
The "eight direction exercise." combines zengo-undo with ikkyo-undo to practice correct extension of ki and attention.

Happo-baraki
To be totally aware of one's surroundings.

Hara
The center (one-point) in the lower abdomen or belly, thought of as physical and spiritual center of the body. hara kiri (known in english as "harry-karry') was japanese ritual suicide, involving a knife cut, kiri to the hara.

Haragei
The art of developing the hara..

Hasso no kamae
"figure-eight" stance. the figure eight does not correspond to the arabic numeral "8", but rather to the chinese/japanese character which looks more like the roof of a house. in hasso no kamae, the sword is held up beside one's head, so that the elbows spread down and out from the sword in a pattern resembling this figure-eight character.usually hasso hidari, sword on right, left foot forward.

Hayaku
Quickly.

Heiko
Parallel.

Henka waza
Varied technique. especially beginning one technique and changing to another in mid-execution. ex. beginning ikkyo but changing to irimi-nage.

Hidari
Left.

Hiji
Elbow. ushiro hiji-tori describes "elbows grabbed from the rear ".

Hijiuchi
Arm cut.

Hikoki-nage
Hikoki, airplane + nage, throw. appears in taigi 18.

Hineri
A twist.

Hitori-waza
Hitori, one person + waza, techniques. in aikido, these are unpartnered single-person exercises to develop balance and coordination, and to pattern the basic movements of aikido techniques. see kumi-waza.

Hiza
Knee.

Honbu
Headquarters, from hon, base + bu, section, group.

I

Iaijutsu
An ancient method of combat centered upon the perfection of the initial movement of the sword.

Ikkyo
No 1 wrist / immobilization technique, from ichi, one, first + kyo, teaching.

Ima
Now.

In-ibuki
Internal (quiet) breathing (see yo-inbuki)

Ippon-ken
A one-knuckle fist.

Irimi
iri, from ireru, to put inside + mi, body. (lit. "entering the body"). in aikido, irimi is an entering movement, a stepping inside the line of attack. in ki society, irimi techniques are the equivalent of techniques designated as omote in other styles. compare with tenkan. many aikidoists think that the irimi movement expresses the very essence of aikido. the idea behind irimi is to place oneself in relation to an attacker in such a way that the attacker is unable to continue to attack effectively, and in such a way that one is able to control effectively the attacker's balance. (see shikaku)

J

Jo
A wooden staff, stick. jo-nage ('stick-throws') are techniques in which nage has the jo and uses it to throw an attacker. jo-tori, ("jo-grabs') are the set of techniques used to disarm an attacker with a jo. wooden staff about 4'-5' in length. the jo originated as a walking stick. it is unclear how it became incorporated into aikido. many jo movements come from traditional japanese spear- fighting, others may have come from jo-jutsu, but many seem to have been innovated by the founder. the jo is usually used in advanced practice.

Jodan
high hand position upper position. jodan no kamae is thus a stance with the hands or a weapon held in a high position.

Joho
Upwards, from jo, up + ho, direction. see kaho, downwards.

Joho tekubi-kosa waza
High arm swing crossing at the fingers.

Joza
Another name for kamiza or the upper seat of the mat.

Ju
The principle of suppleness, adaptation and also non-resistance.

Ju-jutsu
Ju, soft, pliant + jitsu, art, craft, skill or discipline. an art of pliancy or strength through yielding, a japanese form of unarmed combat which uses joint locks and throwing techniques.

Judo
The "way of suppleness" a discipline of development devised from the ancient jujutsu technique and budo ethics by count jigoro kano(1860 - 1938)

Juji (nage)
Letter ten, from ju, ten + ji, letter. appears in taigi 13. arm twist /cross projection.

Junan kenko
Soft exercise for health.

K

Kachihayabi
"victory at the speed of sunlight." according to the founder, when one has achieved total self-mastery (agatsu) and perfect accord with the fundamental principles governing the universe (especially principles covering ethical interaction), one will have the power of the entire universe at one's disposal, there no longer being any real difference between oneself and the universe. at this stage of spiritual advancement, victory is instantaneous. the very intention of an attacker to perpetrate an act of violence breaks harmony with the fundamental principles of the universe, and no one can compete successfully against such principles. also, the expression of the fundamental principles of the universe in human life is love (ai), and love, according to the founder, has no enemies. having no enemies, one has no need to fight, and thus always emerges victorious. (see agatsu and masakatsu)

Kaeshi
From kaesu, to turn out, a change, reversal. (the suffixed kaeshi often becomes gaeshi in compound such as kote-gaeshi) kote-gaeshi describes "turning the inside facing wrist, kote, to the outside. "kiri-kaeshi ("cut and reverse") involves a complete reversal (180 degrees) of uke's motion. ura ('back or reverse") + gaeshi turns him inside out, facing the other way just before falling. technique reversal. (uke becomes nage and vice- versa). this is usually a very advanced form of practice. kaeshi waza practice helps to instil sensitivity to shifts in resistance or direction in the movements of one's partner. training so as to anticipate and prevent the application of kaeshi waza against one's own techniques greatly sharpens aikido skills.

Kaho
Downwards, from ka, down + ho, direction. see joho upwards.

Kahotekubi-kosa waza
Low arm swing at wrist in front of the one point.

Kaiten
Revolving, rotating, from kai, turn, revolve + ten, roll. kaiten-nage is a spinning throw; uke's body will revolve once before he is led down to the mat. in zenpp-kelten-nage, uke falls forward like a wheel.

Kamae
A posture or stance either with or without a weapon. kamae may also connote proper distance (ma-ai) with respect to one's partner. although " kamae " generally refers to a physical stance, there is an important parallel in aikido between one's physical and one's psychological bearing. adopting a strong physical stance helps to promote the correlative adoption of a strong psychological attitude. it is important to try so far as possible to maintain a positive and strong mental bearing in aikido.

Kami
A divinity, living force, or spirit. according to shinto, the natural world is full of kami, which are often sensitive or responsive to the actions of human beings.

Kamiza
Upper or raised seat on the mat usually located at the front of the dojo. will usually have a picture, ornament or motto on the wall (see gaku). also known as shomen.

Kamiza rei
Bow to kamiza / shomem or the front of the dojo.

Kanetsu-waza
Techniques which are applied to the joints.

Kansha
Gratitude. aikido places great emphasis on the expression of gratitude, not just to our instructors and fellow practitioners, but to all members of society and all elements of creation.

Karate
A method of combat employing the whole anatomy as a weapon of combat, centred mainly upon the use of the hands for percussion (kara-empty te-hand), introduced in japan by funakosi gichin 1869 - 1957.

Kata (1)
Shoulder kate-tori is a shoulder grab.

Kata (2)
One side, single. katate-tori is a single-hand grab. see ryo, both.

Kata (3)
Form: hence jo kata is a form done with the staff, intended to demonstrate flow and rhythm, an awareness of space and placement while perfecting technique.

Katagatame
A variation of kaiten-nage where you lock your opponent's shoulder and bring him directly to the ground in a lock.

Katame
An immobilisation, from katameru, to lock, to pin, or to harden. katame -waza are immobilization techniques and include ikkyo, nikyo, sankyo, yonkyo and gokyo which mean "first," "second," "third," "fourth," and "fifth" techniques, respectively.

Katameru
To squeeze out/pin or immobilise.

Katana
A japanese steel sword, slightly curved and single-edged. katana is the japanese reading. the chinese reading is to. the wooden sword is a bokken (see ken). te-gatana, hand-sword, refers to the use of the edge of the hand as if it were a blade or knife edge, a technique common in karate.

Katate
One hand hold.

Katate-kosatori
One hand hold - opposite side.

Katate-tori
One hand hold - same side.

Katate-tori ryotemochi
Two hand hold on one hand katatori.

Kazu
Number. one - ichi, two - ni, three - san, four - shi / yon, five - go, six - roku, seven - shichi, eight - hachi, nine - kyu / ku, ten - ju..

Keike
Practice, training, study, lessons, from kei, to think + ko, old. keiko-saru originally meant to think of old things," later to "to learn or study old things such as arts, skills, and techniques." learning these things requires training. thus, nowadays keiko means training. keiko-gl are "training clothes."

Keiko
Training. the only secret to success in aikido.

Ken
A straight, two-edged sword. ken is the chinese reading. kendo is the 'way of the sword" and its practitioners are known as kendoka. shinken is a real sword. see shinken and katana.

Kenkokotsu
Shoulder blades.

Kensho
Enlightenment.

Keri
Kick (see mawashi - roundhouse kick)

Kesa
Sword cut - from shoulder to hip.

Kese-gake
A diagonal cut from shoulder from kesa, surplice, part of monk's costume hanging from shoulder + gake, from kake, hanging, laying, putting over. appears in taigi 26.

Ki
The universal spirit; life energy. in japanese, ki appears in many contexts such as gen-ki, a spirit of health, byo-ki, a spirit of sickness, ai-ki, a spirit of harmony. considered the energy of life itself.

Ki musubi
ki no musubi - literally "knotting / tying-up ki". the act / process of matching one's partner's movement/intention at its inception, and maintaining a connection to one's partner throughout the application of an aikido technique. proper ki musubi requires a mind that is clear, flexible, and attentive. (see setsuzoku)

Ki no kenkyukai
Ki society international.

Ki no kokyu-ho
Ki breathing. a special set of meditation and development techniques aimed at calming the spirit and establishing true kokyu.

Ki no seiza-ho
Ki meditation as is taught by tohei sensei.

Ki no taiso
3 minute exercises designed to balance and tone the body. ( see aiki taiso )

Ki-ai
A piercing shout with ki, from ki, spirit + ai, harmony. the concept is that of an outpouring of ki energy from the one-point, unifying body and spirit. in modern japanese, it also refers to vigor. to put ki-ai into something (kiai wo ireru) means "to work at something with vigor"

Kiaten-nage
Rotary / circular throw ( irimi and tenkan )

Kiatsu
A way of directing ki through touch, for healing.

Kihon
(something which is) fundamental. there are often many seemingly very different ways of performing the same technique in aikido. to see beneath the surface features of the technique and grasp the core common is to comprehend the kihon.

Kikan
Windpipe / trachea.

Kiku
Lower.

Kiri
From kiri, to cut. tekubi-kiri is a cut to the wrist; ude-kiri is a cut to the arm.

Kirikaeshi
Cut and return.

Kiyotsukete
Be careful.

Kiza
Kneeling, but up on toes.

Kohai
Junior student, from ko, back, later + hai, fellow. see dohai, equals, and senpai, senior.

Koho
Back; backwards, from ko, back + ho, direction. koho-tento undo is the rolling backwards exercise. see zenpo.shiro ukemi.

Koho-tento
Rolling exercise.

Koichi tohei
Founder of ki society international - japan.

Koko
Area between thumb and forefinger.

Kokoro
Heart / mind from your spirit.

Kokoro no ken
Pure strikes with a life blade.

Kokoro-gamae
Mental attitude.

Kokyu
Breath, from ko, exhale, call + kyu, inhale, suck. a kokyu-nage is a breath throw, or, by extension, a timing throw, because it is done using only uke's momentum and nage's timing. kokyu-nage techniques are a family of techniques, which depend on timing, sensitivity, and ki extension rather than a joint lock. kokyu is thought of as ki in motion, empowered by breath and its control. kokyu-nage is known as irimi nage or as ishi otoshi in different styles.

Kokyu dosa
Kneeling exercise with ki extension/breath powered movement.

Komban wa
Good evening.

Komi
Coming closer or drawing near.

Kongo
Blade vertical in front of face.

Konnichi wa
Hello! good day (after 10:00am)

Kosa
Cross, across from ko, cross, intersect + sa, finger crossing. tekubi- kosa -undo is the "wrist-crossing-exercise." katate, one hand + kosa-tori describes a "one-hand-grab." compare with katate-tori.

Koshi
Hips. koshi-nage is a "hip-throw.

Koshin
Moving backwards, from ko, backwards + shin, proceed. koshin-undo is a series of exercises in which the student practices moving backwards while continuing to extend ki forward.

Koshinage
Hip throw.

Kote
Forearm, hand, tips of hand, from ko, small + te, hand. kote-gaeshi is a "wrist-bend" (wrist lock), which serves as a throw. kote sometimes refers to the entire forearm. in kendo, a kote strike is a blow, not to the wrist but to any point an the gauntlets covering the entire forearms.

Kote-oroshi
Downward wrist turn.

Kotegaeshi
Outward wrist turn.

Kotodama
A practice of intoning various sounds (phonetic components of the japanese language) for the purpose of producing mystical states. the founder of aikido was greatly interested in shinto and neo-shinto mystical practices, and he incorporated a number of them into his personal aikido practice.

Koutai
Change.

Ku
Emptiness. according to buddhism, the fundamental character of things is absence (or emptiness) of individual unchanging essences. the realization of the essencelessness of things is what permits the cultivation of psychological non-attachment, and thus cognitive equanimity. the direct realization of (or experience of insight into) emptiness is enlightenment. this shows up in aikido in the ideal of developing a state of cognitive openness, permitting one to respond immediately and intuitively to changing circumstances (see mokuso).

Kubi
Neck. tekubi is the wrist, that is, the "neck" of the hand (te). kabi-uchi is a strike to the neck. ushiro kubi-shime is a one-armed neck choke from the rear in medieval japan, uchi-kubi was decapitation, a shameful and humiliating death.

Kubi-shime
Strangle hold.

Kubiuchi
Strike to the neck.

Kujiki
Strain.

Kumi-waza
Kumi, a pair, partners + waza, techniques. see hitori-waza.

Kumijo
Staff partnership practices.

Kumitachi
Sword partnership practice.

Kushin
Springing into attack.

Kushin-uke
To dodge the attack.

Kuzushi
The principle of destroying one's partner's balance. in aikido, a technique cannot be properly applied unless one first unbalances one's partner. to achieve proper kuzushi, in aikido, one should rely primarily on position and timing, rather than merely on physical force.

Kyo
Teaching. the standard wrist locks, ikkyo, nikyo, sankyo, and yonkyo, are the "first," "second," "third," and "fourth teachings."

Kyu
Level, quality. in martial arts, kyu designates any rank below shodan first black belt. in other areas, kyu can refer to level or quality. for example, an "ikkyu restaurant" would be a restaurant of the first quality.

L

Lie
No.

M

Ma-ai
The proper ("harmonious") distance of respect between nage and uke, from ma, space + ai, fit, harmonize. proper distancing or timing with respect to one's partner. since aikido techniques always vary according to circumstances, it is important to understand how differences in initial position affect the timing and application of techniques. ma-ai depends on the reach of the partners and the types ofweapons being used; it is closer for a pair of short opponents than for tall ones; it is closer for unarmed combat than for swordplay. throughout japanese culture, me-ai is extremely important. in calligraphy, the space between the characters is just as important as the ink, in japanese-rock gardens, the spaces between the rocks are just as important as the rocks themselves.

Mae
Front / forward.

Mae ukemi
"forward fall/roll". opposite is ushiro.

Maekeri
Front kick.

Makikaeshi
Wrist roll down, up in circular movement and return.

Massugu
Straight ahead.

Mate
Wait.

Mato
Centre of heart / action or belief.

Matsu
Wait.

Mawashi
A turn / rotation.

Mawashikeri
Roundhouse kick.

Mawatte
Turn around.

Men
Face, front of head; men-uchi is a head-strike. shomen-uchi is a strike directly down to the head. yokomen-uchi is a strike to the head or face with a diagonal component.

Menuchi
Attack to the face.

Mi
Body. mi is japanese reading. see shin .

Michibikin
From michibiku, to lead or guide, guidance.

Migi
Right.

Mimi
Ears.

Misogi
(purification.) a set of shinto purifying rituals. a side training discipline to aikido. various defilements obscure our essentially pure and god-like nature; through misogi, purification of body and mind, we can remove such impurities and restore our true image. although misogi rites usually involve water purification (e.g. in a waterfall), o-sensei considered all aikido techniques to be forms of misogi. in the ki society we practice a form of misogi adapted from the ichikukai temple. aikido training may be looked upon as a means of purifying oneself; eliminating defiling characteristics from one's mind or personality. although there are some specific exercises for misogi practice, such as breathing exercises, in point of fact, every aspect of aikido training may be looked upon as misogi. this, however, is a matter of one's attitude or approach to training, rather than an objective feature of the training itself.

Mochi
From motsu, to hold, have, possess. ryote - mochi is a hold with both hands .

Mokuso
Meditation. practice often begins or ends with a brief period of meditation. the purpose of meditation is to clear one's mind and to develop cognitive equanimity. perhaps more importantly, meditation is an opportunity to become aware of conditioned patterns of thought and behaviour so that such patterns can be modified, eliminated or more efficiently put to use. in addition, meditation may occasion experiences of insight into various aspects of aikido (or, if one accepts certain buddhist claims, into the very structure of reality). ideally, the sort of cognitive awareness and focus that one cultivates in meditation should carry over into the rest of one's practice, so that the distinction between the "meditative mind" and the "normal mind" collapses.

Morihei ueshiba
The founder of aikido. (see o sensei and kaiso).

Mudansha
Students without black-belt ranking.

Muki
Vacuum.

Mukozune
Atemi point in the middle of the shin.

Mukuso
Closing the eyes / meditation.

Mune
Chest, midsection, thorax.

Munen mushin
Striking with conscience.

Munen muso
The goal of zazen.

Murasame
Pressure point on each side of the neck behind the collar bone.

Mushin
Literally "no mind". a state of cognitive awareness characterized by the absence of discursive thought. a state of mind in which the mind acts / reacts without hypostatization of concepts. mushin is often erroneously taken to be a state of mere spontaneity. although spontaneity is a feature of mushin, it is not straightforwardly identical with it. it might be said that when in a state of mushin, one is free to use concepts and distinctions without being used by them.

Musubi
Blending of breath and process of unification between partners.

N

Nagare
Flowing. one goal of aikido practice is to learn not to oppose physical force with physical force. rather, one strives to flow along with physical force, redirecting it to one's advantage. nage - the thrower.

Nagashi
Flow / flowing.

Nagashi waza
Flowing from one technique to next.

Nage
(1) a thrower, the person who performs techniques. (2) a throw. nage is a common designation for the partner who performs the nage-waza, throwing techniques.

Naginata
A curved spear once used by japanese monks and samurai, also the art of using it.

Naname
Oblique / diagonal. kokyu-dosa or kokyu-ho is sometimes called naname kokyu nage or the "oblique breath throw."

Ne waza
Grappling techniques.

Nido
Twice from ni, two + do, a measure, a time, a degree.

Nikyo
"second" immobilization technique, from ni, two, second + kyo, teaching. see katame. also known as nikajyo or kote-mawashi different styles.

Ninjo
What you have to do.

Ninjutsu
Techniques of the ninja, the japanese 'commando' and 'super spy'.

Nobashi
Stretched out.

Nodo
Throat.

Nogare
Breathing method featuring long exhalation with sharp gasp.

Nuki
Pull.

O

O sensei
Great, or original teacher. in aikido, refers to morihei ueshiba, the founder of modern aikido.

Obi
A belt.

Ogenki desu ka
How are you ?.

Ohayo gozaimasu
Good morning (before 10:00am)

Oji
A response.

Oji waza
To block and then counter attack.

Ojigi
Bow, from o, no meaning but honorific + ji (originally came from time) + gi, greeting. formerly, ojigi meant seasonal greeting. now it means a bow. ojigi-nage are throws down simply by bowing politely in response to an attack. featured in taigi 4 (known as "the women's taigi").

Okagesama de
Fine, thankyou.

Omote
Front, forward. usually equivalent to irimi techniques. a class of movements in aikido in which nage enters in front of uke. see ura.

Omoto-kyo
The teaching of the great origin, one of the so-called "new-religions" of japan. omotokyo is a syncretic amalgam of shintoism. the religion established early in the twentieth century by deguchi nao and deguchi onisaburo. o-sensei was a fervent believer in omoto-kyo from the time of his late thirties, and incorporated some elements from it into his aikido practice. the founder insisted, however, that one need not be a devotee of omotokyo in order to study aikido or to comprehend aikido's purpose.

One-point
The english interpretation of hara or center point of the body, considered to be about two inches below the naval, roughly the point of the hip joints. japanese sometimes use itten, which literally means "one-point." see seika-tanden. made famous in aikido doctrine by koichi tohei, founder of ki society.

Onegai shimasu
Thankyou for what we are about to do, or, i place myself under your teaching.

Onshi-no-gyoi - onshi
Receiving from the emperor + no, of, possessive particle + gyoi honorific gift of clothes.

Oroshi
From orosu, to drop downward; to put down. the technique ude-oroshi involves dropping the arm-downward.

Osa
The instructor who leads sokushin no gyo, seated on the front or right.

Osae waza
Pinning techniques.

Otagai ni rei
Bow to each other.

Otomo
Attendant to an instructor.

Otonashi
Calm and serene, like the ever decreasing ripples on the surface of a lake.

Otoshi
Dropping.

Oyasumi nasai
Goodnight (before bedtime)

R

Randori
A multiple-person attack; free-style defence or sparring, from randoru, to spar, from ran, chaos, chaotic, random, or disorderly + dori, from tori, grab. a free-style "all-out" training. sometimes used as a synonym for jiyu waza. although aikido techniques are usually practiced with a single partner, it is important to keep in mind the possibility that one may be attacked by multiple aggressors. many of the body movements of aikido (tai sabak) are meant to facilitate defense against multiple attackers.

Rei
Bow, the command to bow. the formal gesture of respect and gratitude used by aikido practitioners to each other.

Reigi
Etiquette. observance of proper etiquette at all times (but especially observance of proper dojo etiquette) is as much a part of one's training as the practice of techniques. observation of etiquette indicates one's sincerity, one's willingness to learn, and one's recognition of the rights and interests of others.

Reiseishin
The spirit that is one with the spirit of the universe.

Renshu
Hard work on the basics.

Rensoku
Continuance, succession, a series, from ren, link, join + zoku, continuing movement.

Ritsugi
Ritsu, standing + gi, techniques . japanese reading is tachi-waza. see zagi and suwari-waza japanese reading.

Ritsurei
Ritsu, standing + rei bow. see zarei (sitting bow).

Ritsuzen
Standing meditation.

Ryo
Both, ryote, 'both hands" from te, hand. katate ryote-machi is a "grab with both hands" (two hands grabbing one hand) and ryote-tori is an attack to both hands (two hands grabbing two hands). see kata.

Ryo-kata-tori
Is a "grab to both shoulders."

Ryo-katatori
Two hands hold shoulders.

Ryote
Both hands.

Ryote-mochi
A two hand ryote-tori.

Ryu
School (as schools of the martial arts).

S

Sabaki
Body motion.

Sakate
Reverse.

Sakate mochi
Reverse hold or backhand grip.

Samurai
A warrior, military retainer - feudal period. originally it meant those who served the emperors with their lives. see bushi.

Sankakkei
Trangular.

Sankaku
Triangle.

Sankyo
The "third" immobilization technique, from san, three, third + kyo, teaching. also known as sanjokyo or kato-hineri in different styles. see katame.

Sanningake
Three person attack.

Satori
A buddhist concept: enlightenment, or the moment of intense total realisation. in buddhism, enlightenment is characterised by a direct realisation or apprehension of the absence of unchanging essences behind phenomena. rather, phenomena are seen to be empty of such essences - phenomena exist in thorough going interdependence (engi). as characterized by the founder of aikido, enlightenment consists in realizing a fundamental unity between oneself and the (principles governing) the universe. the most important ethical principle the aikidoist should gain insight into is that one should cultivate a spirit of loving protection for all things. (see ku and shinnyo)

Sayonara
Good-bye.

Sayu
Left and right, from sa, left + yu right. sayu-undo involves alternately shifting the arms to the right and left and dropping their weight underside to perform a throw.

Seika-tanden
Seika, under the navel + tanden, the body part about 2 inches below the navel. seika-tanden is the bodily source of ki energy. lower abdomen.

Seikichu
The spine.

Seiretsu
To form a line.

Seiza
The formal japanese kneeling position, from sei, correct + za, sitting. sitting on both knees with the back straight. sitting this way requires acclimatization, but provides both a stable base and greater ease of movement than sitting cross-legged.

Sempai
From sen + hai, comrade, companion. the combination indicates anyone senior in a particular area. hence, on the mat, you may be senpai to someone who joined the club before you did (regardless of kyu grade) but kohai to the same person who may be a "senior" at school, at work, or simply in age. a student senior to oneself. see dohai and kohai.

Senaka
Back.

Senaka awasa
Two uke's collide back to back.

Sensei
Instructor, teacher, from sen, before + sei, living or born, hence "one who was born before you." more importantly, one who leads the way. it is usually considered proper to address the instructor during practice as "sensei" rather than by his/her name. if the instructor is a permanent instructor for one's dojo or for an organization, it is proper to address him/her as "sensei" off the mat as well.

Sensei rei
Bow to sensei.

Setsu nin to
"the sword that kills." although this would seem to indicate a purely negative concept, there is, in fact, a positive connotation to this term. apart from the common assumption that killing may sometimes be a "necessary evil" which may serve to prevent an even greater evil, the concept of killing has a wide variety of metaphorical applications. one may, for example, strive to "kill" such harmful character traits as ignorance, selfishness, or (excessive) competitiveness. some misogi sword exercises in aikido, for example, involve imagining that each cut of the sword destroys some negative aspect of one's personality. in this way, setsu nin to and katsu jin ken coalesce.

Setsudo
Teaching the way of the universe.

Setsuzoku
Connection. aikido techniques are generally rendered more efficient by preserving a connection between one's centre of mass (hara) and the outer limits of the movement, or between one's own centre of mass and that of one's partner. also, setsuzoku may connote fluidity and continuity in technique. on a psychological level, setsuzoku may connote the relationship of action-response that exists between oneself and one's partner, such that successful performance of aikido techniques depends crucially upon timing one's own actions and responses to accord with those of one's partner.

Shaolin
Ancient chinese boxing reputed by most authors to be the fore-father of karate and other arts of percussion.

Shihan
Exemplary teacher - a title used for the highest ranking teachers. (usually 6th dan and above - but not exactly a function of rank.) a formal title meaning, approximately, "master instructor." a "teacher of teachers."

Shiho
Four directions, all directions, from shi, four + ho direction.

Shihonage
Four direction turn and projection.

Shikaku
Literally "dead angle." a position relative to one's partner where it is difficult for him/her to (continue to) attack, and from which it is relatively easy to control one's partner's balance and movement. the first phase of an aikido technique is often to establish shikaku.

Shikka
From shitsu, knee + ko, progressing. the japanese reading of "knee" is hiza.

Shikko
Samurai walking ("knee walking"). shikko is very important for developing a strong awareness of one's centre of mass (hara). it also develops strength in one's hips and legs.

Shikko shinenshobu
Lit. "duel with live swords." this expresses the attitude one should have about aikido training, i.e., one should treat the practice session as though it were, in some respects, a life-or-death duel with live swords. in particular, one's attention during aikido training should be single-mindedly focussed on aikido, just as, during a life-or-death duel, one's attention is entirely focussed on the duel.

Shikoku
Blind spot.

Shimoza
Lower seat on the opposite side of kamiza.

Shin-shin
Mind and body from shin, mind + shin, body. both elements have the same pronunciation but different characters with different meanings. zan-shin is the immovable mind, unbroken flow of ki and concentration on uke after the throw is completed; fudo -shin is the unperturbable mind. shin -shin toitsu aikido is literally "aikido with mind and body coordinated" from shin, mind + shin, body + toitsu, coordination + ai, harmony + ki, spirit, energy + do, way.

Shinai
Bamboo sword. a length of split and bound bamboo for sword practice. it makes a loud whack when it connects, but does not cause serious injury.

Shindo
Shaking, swinging, oscillation, vibration from shin, shaking, waving + do, movement. tekubi-shindo-undo is the 'wrist-shaking-exercise."

Shindoin
A formal title meaning, approximately, "instructor."

Shinken
A live blade.

Shinnyo
"thusness" or "suchness." a term commonly used in buddhist philosophy (and especially in zen buddhism) to denote the character of things as they are experienced without filtering the experiences through an overt conceptual framework. there is some question whether "pure" un-interpreted experience (independent of all conceptualization / categorisation) is possible given the neurological / cognitive makeup of human beings. however, shinnyo can also be taken to signify experience of things as empty of individual essences (see "ku").

Shintai
The body.

Shinto
The 'way of the gods' a natural religion of japan based on the cult of ancestors. the indigenous religion of japan. the founder of aikido was deeply influenced by omotokyo, a religion largely grounded in shintomysticism. (see kami).

Shita
Down.

Shite
Yoshinkan style uses this term to designate what other styles call nage. pronounced shtey it is the word used for the principle actor in a kabuki play.

Shizentai
Basic natural posture, feet apart.

Shizoku
Safe spot.

Shodan
First degree black belt.

Shokushu
A brief, uplifting statement used prior to training. tohei sensei has composed 21 of these sayings which are read and repeated phrase by phrase before each class. used to centre oneself, prepare oneself for training.

Shomen
Front from sho, correct, proper + men, face, mask, side shomen-uchi is an overhand strike(uchi) attacking the "front' of the head. also the designated front of a dojo (see yokomen.)

Shomenuchi
Straight blow to the centre of the head.

Shoshin
Beginners mind.

Shuchu
Concentration.

Shuhai
Back of the hand sode.

Sode
Sleeve. sode-tori is a "sleeve grab."

Soku
There, that position.

Sokuboku
Soku = breath; boku = wood. the wooden clappers used to signify the changes in controlled breathing and meditation.

Sokushin no gyo
Breath -(voice)- mind (unification) training. the act of purifying mind and body. a side-training discipline in aikido. (see misogi)

Sosho
Aikido arts done at full speed with a strong leading of ki.

Soto
"outside." thus, a class of aikido movements executed, especially, outside the attacker's arm(s). (see uchi)

Soto-mawari
Turning out. movement to the side of one's partner.

Suburi
Su, origin, essence, true nature + buri from fun, swinging. suburi means sword swinging (exercise) without a partner or an opponent; it is also applied to practice with baseball bats and golf clubs. basic jo or bokken practice in striking and thrusting. done also as solo practice.

Sudori
A passing through without stopping, from su, origin, essence, true nature + dori from tori passing. dori (with long vowel) is not the same as dori (from tori, grab). sudori is a type of forward throw in which uke passes straight through with no change in direction and no rotation - then falls.

Suikomi
Suction or drawing up.

Sukashi waza
Techniques performed without allowing the attacker to complete a grab or to initiate strike.

Sukashiwaza
Techniques performed without allowing the attacker to complete a grab or to initiate a strike. ideally, one should be sensitive enough to the posture and movements of an attacker (or would-be attacker) that the attack is neutralized before it is fully executed. a great deal of both physical and cognitive training is required in order to attain this ideal.

Suki
An opening or gap where one is vulnerable to attack or application of a technique, or where one's technique is otherwise flawed. suki may be either physical or psychological. one goal of training is to be sensitive to suki within one's own movement or position, as well as to detect suki in the movement or position of one's partner. ideally, a master of aikido will have developed his/her skill to such an extent that he/she no longer has any true suki..

Sukui
Vacuum / scooping.

Sumi otoshi
Corner drop (irimi and tenkan)

Sutemi
Literally "to throw-away the body." the attitude of abandoning oneself to the execution of a technique (in judo, a class of techniques where one sacrifices one's own balance/position in order to throw one's partner). (see ai uchi).

Suwari seated
suwari waza pertains to exercises done from seiza.

Suwari waza
Techniques requiring the nage and uke to perform from the sitting position. these techniques have their historical origin (in part) in the practice of requiring all samurai to sit and move about on their knees while in the presence of a daimyo (feudal lord). in theory, this made it more difficult for anyone to attack the daimyo. but this was also a position in which one received guests (not all of whom were always trustworthy). in contemporary aikido, suwari waza is important for learning to use one's hips and legs.

Suzu
Bell.

T

Tabi
Japanese sock slippers used in dojo.

Tachi (1)
Long and big sword. originally written "big sword," now written 'thick sword." tachi-tori techniques are those designed to take away an opponent's sword. (thus tachi tori - sword-taking) see tanto.

Tachi (2)
Standing, from tachi, to stand tachi-waza are "standing techniques." also appears as dachi hence zagi han-dachi.

Tachi waza
Standing techniques.

Tachi-dori
Techniques of taking an opponent's sword.

Tachi-oyogi
The martial art of swimming while in armour.

Tachiuchi
Crossing swords.

Tai
Body, form, sometimes style.

Tai sabaki
A circular motion. body movement. body movement in aikido should be free-flowing, natural, and prudent.

Tai-atari uchi otoshi
From yokomen-uchi entering and blocking. uke gets thrown backwards.

Taigi
tai body + gi, techniques. taigi generally refers to techniques without weapons in contrast to ken-gi, sword techniques or jo-gi, stick techniques. however, in the ki society, taigi refers to partnered exercises involving a series of attacks and defenses but designed to demonstrate flow and rhythm.

Taijutsu
'body parts,' ie unarmed practice.

Taiso
Exercise, training, practice all done with ki extension.

Tanden
one point.

Tanto
Dagger, knife, from tan, short + to, sword. wooden training knife. all wooden training weapons are treated as if they were actually sharp steel. the idea here being that if one can successfully view the wooden weapon as steel, then when faced suddenly with steel, one can view the steel as wood.

Tanto-tori
Techniques for dealing with and taking away knife attacks.

Tao
The supreme essence of reality and existence (chinese)

Taoism
The doctrine of total integration in the order of existence propounded by lao tzu.

Tatami
A mat on which martial arts are practiced.

Te
Hand; kara-te is the way of the empty, hence weaponless hand: kata-te is the neck of the hand, that is, the wrist. katate-tori are attacks to the wrist. tegatana or tekatana is the "hand-blade" or "sword" edge (or knife-edge) of the hand.

Te-kubi
Wrist - literally, "neck of hand".

Te-no-hira
Palm of hand tekubi.

Te-ura
Inside of wrist.

Tegatana
Hand blade "hand sword", i.e. the edge of the hand. many aikido movements emphasise extension and alignment "through" one's tegatana. also, there are important similarities obtaining between aikido sword techniques, and the principles of tegatana application.

Tenchi
ten, heaven + chi, earth. tenchi-nage is "heaven and earth throw," based on being powerfully rooted to the earth while extending towards the heavens.

Tenchi nage
Heaven and earth projection (irimi and tenkan)

Tenkan
ten, turn + kan, to interchange, reverse. tenkan is a "turning' outside uke's line of attack. compare with irimi..

Tenshin
A movement where nage retreats 45 degrees away from the attack (esp. to uke's open side).

Tenugui
Small cloth to wipe the face, usually kept inside of gi during training. also worn under the helmet in kendo.

Tessen
Tetsu, iron + sen, fan. it looked like any folding fan, but its skeleton was of steel. it had two main outside ribs of sword steel to tendon sword blows, inner skeletal ribs of fine sword steel, thin and pointed so that when opened and used to strike at throat of foe, at least one rib would pierce the silk cover and slit the attacker's throat. the steel fan was used where more overt weapons were forbidden, and even played a critical part (as a fin) in the art of swimming in armor (tachi oyogi).

Tobikomi
Tabi to jump + komi entering, into . tobikomi usually describes a jumping in behind uke, as in kokyu-nage basic (katate-kosa-tori irimi tobikomi).

Toitsu
Unity, unification, from to, reign, govern + itsu one. shin shin toitsu aikido is aikido with mind-body coordination or unification.

Tori
From toru, to grab, hold, take, pick. katate-kosatori is a grab of the opposite wrist; kate-tori is a grab of the shoulder or, as we think of it, the lapel.

Tori (dori)
Taking away, e.g. tanto-tori (knife-taking).

Tsugi ashi
The follow-up step.

Tsuki
From tsuki, to stick. a thrust, poke, stab, punch as with a fist, jo, or knife; mune-tsuki is a chest-punch; (esp. an attack to the midsection). ushiro-tsuki can mean a stab from behind or a thrust to the rear.

Tsuki uchi
"inside." a class of techniques where nage moves, especially, inside (under) the attacker's arm(s). (but also a strike, e.g., shomen uchi)

Tsukikaeshi
Thrust and return.

U

Uchi (1)
From utsu, to strike. shomen-uchi is a frontal attack to the head while yokomen-uchi is a diagonal attack to the head.

Uchi (2)
Inside. opposite is soto, outside. an uchi-deshi, from deshi, pupil, disciple, is an apprentice living in the home of his master.

Uchi deshi
A live-in student. a student who lives in a dojo and devotes him/herself both to training and to the maintenance of the dojo (and sometimes to personal service to the sensei of the dojo).

Uchi waza
Striking techniques.

Uchiwa
Fan.

Uchiwa kubikiri
Fan cut to the neck.

Ude
Arm; ude-furi undo is the arm-swinging exercise.

Ude-furi
Circular arm swinging exercise from left to right without the moving of the torso.

Udemawashi
Circular arm swing.

Ue
Up.

Uke
Receiving, from ukeru, to receive. in aikido the partner who receives (techniques). the opposite is nage. at high levels of practice, the distinction between uke and nage becomes blurred. in part, this is because it becomes unclear who initiates the technique, and also because, from a certain perspective, uke and nage are thoroughly interdependent. see nage.

Ukemi
Literally "receiving the body, (1) defensive, passive (2) the act of taking techniques, from ukeru, to receive ukemi. uke is the attacking partner who receives nage's technique. ukemi is the art of falling under control and refers to protecting oneself by falling safely. ideally, one should be able to execute ukemi from any position and in any direction. the development of proper ukemi skills is just as important as the development of throwing skills and is no less deserving of attention and effort. in the course of practicing ukemi, one has the opportunity to monitor the way one is being moved so as to gain a clearer understanding of the principles of aikido techniques. just as standard aikido techniques provide strategies for defending against physical attacks, so does ukemi practice provide strategies for defending against falling (or even against the application of an aikido or aikido-like technique!).

Uki
Float.

Undo
Exercise, motion, movement from un, carry, transport + do, motion, with ki extension.

Ura
Behind, rear, in back of something. in styles other than ki society aikido, ura techniques are often the named equivalent to ki society tenkan techniques. see omote.

Uragaeshi
To move uke to face away from nage.

Uraken
Back of fist.

Ushiro
Back, backwards, behind. ushiro techniques all involve an attack from the rear such as a bear-hug from behind(ushiro-tori). the apposite of ushiro is mae.ushiro tekubitori describes a "wrist grab from behind." ushiro ryotori describes "both hands attacked from behind." ushiro ryo-kata-tori describes "both shoulders grabbed from behind."ushiro ukemi waza - backward roll ushiro kubishime - choke hold form behind ushiro muki -back vacuum ushiro muki furikaette yokomen uchi - nage draws uke into a vacuum and then reverses the direction and projects uke with a yokomen-style throw ushiro ryo-katatori - both shoulders held from behindushiro tori - held form behind (bear-hug)

Ushiro ukemi
Backward rolls / falls.

W

Wakari masu
I understand waki gamae.

Waki
Side / armpit.

Waza
Technique . hitori waza refers to "single" person exercises such as ikkyo-undo, funekogi-undo. kumi waza refers to "more than one person" technique, that is, throws involving an attacker and a defender. although in aikido we have to practice specific techniques, aikido as it might manifest itself in self-defense may not resemble any particular, standard aikido technique. this is because aikido techniques encode strategies and types of movement, which are modified in accordance with changing conditions. (see kihon)

Y

Yame
Stop.

Yo-inbuki
External breathing power ( see in-buki )

Yoi/ you
Ready.

Yoko
Side, sideways, diagonally.

Yoko-furumi
Sideways motion.

Yokobarai
Side sweep.

Yokomen
Side of head.

Yokomen-uchi
Is a diagonal strike, uchi to the head, men, it actually begins as a straight forward strike, as does shomen-uchi with an added diagonal component and a turning of the hips.

Yoningake
Four person attack.

Yonkyo
The fourth immobilization technique from yon. four, fourth + kyu, teaching.

Yubi
Finger.

Yudansha
yu from yu-suru to possess + dan, level + sha, person. hence black-belt level students or "persons with dan."(any rank).

Yukuri
Slow.

Yumi
A bow (archery)

Yurei
Graceful swan-like bow.

Yuri yaka ni
Smooth.

Z

Zagi
Za, seated, sitting + gi, techniques. both nage and uke are kneeling or seated in seiza.

Zagi-handachi
Are techniques in which standing uke attacks kneeling nage.

Zanshin
Lit. "remaining mind / heart." even after an aikido technique has been completed, one should remain in a balanced and aware state. zanshin thus denotes "following through" in a technique, as well as preservation of one's awareness so that one is prepared to respond to additional attacks. calm awareness, continuing mind, the mind that stops at, or on, nothing.

Zarei
A seated bow, from za, seated, sitting rei, bow, etiquette, gratitude. see ritsurei, a standing bow.

Zazen
Sitting meditation, from za, seated, sitting, zen, quietness, serenity. see zen..

Zen (1)
A school or division of buddhism characterised by techniques designed to produce enlightenment. in particular, zen emphasis's various sorts of meditative practices, which are supposed to lead the practitioner to a direct insight into the fundamental character of reality. it also means "quietness" or "serenity". nowadays, zen means to seek true senses or features by attaining a state of perfect self-effacement, and unifying spirit and soul. (see ku and mokuso).

Zen (2)
Front . see mae . opposite is ushiro. see ushiro.

Zen-shin
To the front, the remaining or immovable mind. see shin-shin..

Zengo
Zen, forward + go, backward, hence zenpo-undo, "forward and backward exercise".

Zengo waza
Two direction exercise in ikkyo position.

Zenpo
Forward from zen, forward + po, from ho, direction. zempo kaiten is a forward roll; zenpo kaiten-nage is a throw in which uke is projected into a forward roll. see koho.

Zenpo kaiten waza
Forward roll. in ki society it is 3 continuous rolls with opposite hand to leg finishing in seated position and ki tested.

Zenpo-nage
Forward projection.

Zenpo-ukemi
A forwards roll or fall.

Zenshin koshin waza
Extending ki forward while moving backward.

Zentai
Total.

Zori
Sandals worn off the mat to help keep the mat clean!

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